The vines or vines can be laid in large areas and form a vineyard or they can be kept in somewhat smaller spaces, such as a garden or large pots. Apart from those who cultivate them for a living, there are those who take care of them to have them as decorative plants or even to give shade in the garden or land, making this an ideal place to place a table and chairs and enjoy a cool place in summer. However, to achieve better growth, so that the plant is leafy and the grapes are of quality, it is necessary to prune the vines. To do this, you have to know how and when to do it to be effective.
Types of pruning of the grapevine
The vids or vines should be pruned throughout their lives several times, to keep them in good condition and allow them to grow strong, favoring them to be leafy and / or that their grapes are valid for consumption and tasty. Thus, we can differentiate between two types of pruning of the vine according to the objective sought:
If the plant or vine is young, the first pruning is known as training pruning as it will determine its shape and strength. Therefore, these processes can vary a little depending on whether the plant is used as a grapevine for table grapes, to make wine or as a vine for shade. In addition, they can vary according to the temperature and climate of the area, the type of grape or its strain. Some common forms are the pruning of the vine in glass and trellis, but there are more techniques and forms so you have to use what is needed in each case.
In glass will be when you want to have a vineyard individually, although there is more on the ground, that is, without being joined to others to form a large land. On the other hand, the trellis technique will be used to create vineyards in which the vines are connected with wires or supports or in cases in which it is sought to use a single vine to shade an area with a support.
Pruning of fruiting
When the plant is already large and strong enough, with the appropriate form, to be able to give grapes, normally after a few years, the pruning of fruiting is carried out. These serve to control the shape of the grapevine and its growth, thus helping the grapes to form better because the sunlight will reach them better and they will be more ventilated.
How and when to prune a young vine
When the vine we want to prune is planted recently, that is, it is young, it is known as a vine and the process is known as training pruning. There are several types of this and depend on the form and use that you will want to give, but it will also depend on the weather and the type of grape, whether it is white or black table grapes, for example, or other strains. Pruning a green or young vine to form it can be done during the first 3 or 4 years. To do this you will only need pruning shears and gloves if you think it is necessary.
When to prune a vine for the first time
Both the first time and throughout these first years in which the most important part of the formation of the vine will be made, pruning will always be done in winter and spring. It is the two key times to ensure proper plant growth.
Specifically, we will have to wait for the first winter after planting for the first pruning. It is necessary to try not to do it in the middle of winter if in the area that we live in it is very cold, it is better to do it when the autumn ends because it is necessary to wait until the leaves have fallen but we must avoid temperatures too low.
In winter we will remove the branches of the previous season and those that have dried and in spring we will cut some green shoots if many have grown so that, thus, the plant focuses the efforts on the strongest new shoots.
How to prune a young or green vine
Being the first pruning should choose the branch or main branch of the vine, that is, it is the strongest and most straight. We must finish removing all the dry leaves that may remain in this main branch and then cut the rest of the weakest branches to the base and the bud that we leave must be pruned leaving 3 or 4 buds or knots, in the case of grapes white, and 2 buds or knots in the case of black grapes.
By cutting the first shoots we will make the next ones grow stronger, which we will see in the spring as soon as it starts to sprout again.
When the vine is in the second period of growth, it must be pruned again, usually in spring, when the shoots reach about 30 cm in length.
Again, we will choose the strongest and cut the others. This time, we will tie the branch to a support, let it continue to grow and when it reaches the top of the support we will clamp it, in this way it will branch off creating two strong branches.
These, during growth, should be pinched to about 20 or 25 cm in length. During the rest of the growth time it has